Directorate General Skills Development
Afghanistan with a labour force of over 10.9 million is facing severe jobs crisis where the estimated unemployment rate is about 35 percent. An additional 0.4 million people entering the labour market every year further exacerbates the unemployment situation. This situation most often leads to people either falling into the traps of anti-government elements or undertaking internal/international migration. The international illegal migration in huge numbers makes Afghans the second largest national group reaching various European destinations.
The poor quality of education and training is also one of the most important elements of unemployment. Given the huge data gap due to the absence of systematic Labour Market Information, the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system in the country is providing training in trades which are either not in high demand or Trades for which jobs don’t exist. The lack of systematic entrepreneurship education and training adds to the problem.
The curriculum and instruction materials being developed for non-formal TVET for limited occupations of TVET courses does not fully match the needs of the labour market and is neither fully implemented in the country. The lack of non-formal TVET-TOT institutes is another main cause of the poor quality of training.
The non-formal TVET is being implemented by various partners including the private sector, national and international NGOs and Public sector with no or low level of coordination, causing poor quality and huge overlaps, basically due to lack of both qualitative and quantities data for provision of non-formal TVET.
The first and foremost step that Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs took in shaping the skills landscape was the establishment of Temporary TVET commission for non-formal to implement and maintain a National Qualifications Framework to ensure compliance with provisions for registration and accreditation to ensure that standards and registered qualifications are national, regionally and internationally comparable.
In just 15 months DGSD has made great strides in streamlining and reinvigorating Afghanistan non-formal TVET. DGSD’s journey and its key achievements to date are detailed below.
The lack of qualitative and quantitative data of non-formal TVET was the major concepts of the Government and partners in particular. In 2018 DGSD with the technical support of DACAAR and financial support of European Union (EU) has developed online TVET-EMIS (www.tvt.af), which includes registration of trainees, potential candidates, graduates, employers, TET providers and a platform to connect graduates with the employers. The implementation of an EMIS in the field of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is a strategic factor for improving the planning, design and evaluation of education and training proposals and programmes.
The Directorate General for Skills Development with the support of national and international partners department has trained a huge number of workforces and created thousands of jobs, but due to lack of communication strategy and existence of a mechanism for sharing the outputs and achievements, the Ministry and people were unaware. DGSD in 2018 has developed the first ever website (www.dgsd.gov.af) with enough information to share the plans, information, resources, events and achievements with the people and partners.
3.Competency-Based Curricula and instruction materials
The Directorate General for Skills Development with the support of national and international partners has developed 217 standards, more than 50 curricula and around 10 instruction materials for both traditional and emerging trades, however in 2018 the focus is shifted to the emerging and market-driven trades/occupations, hence only in 2018 around XXX standards XXX curricula and XXX instruction materials are developed. The DGSD has also developed online E-MIS for developing the materials including, which contains details information of experts and facilitators.
4.Labor Market Information System (LMIA)
The Directorate General for Skills Development (DGSD) has conducted labor market analysis for 15 provinces including a separate analysis for the emerging trades, however in early late 2018 the Department outsourced country wide labor market study to find the demand and supply of the labor market, which will helped DGSD to plan, design and provide market-driven TVET.
5.Simplification of licensing
Currently, more than 500 NGOs and private sectors providers are providing non-formal technical vocational and educational training (TVET), while less than 30 providers are registered with the Ministry. The recent simplified and robust licensing systems introduced by DGSD will provide a framework for the effective management and delivery of training and qualifications and considered as a quality assurance measure and a management tool for continuous improvement.
6.Establishment of Temporary TVET commission
The Directorate General Skills Development has established the first-ever Temporary non-formal TVET commission to promote and advocate for establishing independent national qualification authority (ANQA), and a TVET Board. Temporary non-formal TVET commission focus on accreditation, certification, monitoring and evaluation for quality assurance, analysis of labour market needs, and the approval of NOSS.
The Commission has established the first assessment and certification centre in Afghan Korea Vocational and Educational Training Center (AKTVC), developed assessment tools for 6 priority occupations and assessment and certification guidelines. The commissions also test the first phase of certification at the end of 2018.
7.FrameWork Development Group
The Directorate General for Skills Development with the support of MRSD project has established FDG to overcome existing challenges relating to TVET framework and methodologies as well as in development, implementation and approval processes to provide appropriate solutions linked to the priority action plans developed by DGSD. The FDG has drafted frameworks for labor market assessment, national occupational standard, curricula and instruction materials development, certification and teachers training and will soon be finalized and launched.
8.Provision of Technical Vocational Training
The Directorate General for Skills Development through 47 vocational and educational centers (VTCs), private sector and NGOs has trained around 38,000 unemployed youth, returnees, IDPs and host communities in traditional and educational technical trainings across the country. The Department for the first time expands the coverage of the training programs from central provinces to the districts. DGSD has also proved trainings in the following;